Human Diseases and Conditions
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body. Signs and symptoms of abscesses include: redness, pain, warmth, and swelling that when pressed feels like it is fluid filled. The area of redness often extends beyond the swelling
AIDS and HIV AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is the final stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system.
Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is one form of dementia that gradually gets worse over time. It affects memory, thinking, and behavior.
Aneurysm Aneurysms are sometimes called “silent killers” because they may go undetected for years until they break open. The wall of a section of an artery, vein, or other blood vessel may become weak and begin to bulge, like an underinflated balloon whose air is squeezed from the ends to the middle.
Anxiety Disorders Stress can come from any event or thought that makes you feel frustrated, angry, or nervous. Anxiety is a feeling of fear, unease, and worry. The source of these symptoms is not always known.
Appendicitis Acute appendicitis occurs when the vermiform appendix becomes infected with bacteria.
Asthma Asthma is a disorder that causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow, leading to wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem of not being able to focus, being overactive, not being able control behavior, or a combination of these.
Autism Autism is a developmental disorder that appears in the first 3 years of life, and affects the brain’s normal development of social and communication skills.
Bacterial Infections Most bacteria won’t hurt you – less than 1 percent of the different types make people sick, but infectious bacteria can make you ill. They reproduce quickly in your body. Many give off chemicals called toxins, which can damage tissue and make you sick.
Bell’s Palsy Bell’s palsy is a disorder of the nerve that controls movement of the muscles in the face. This nerve is called the facial or 7th cranial nerve. Damage to this nerve causes weakness or paralysis of these muscles.
Botulism Botulism is food poisoning caused by eating food containing Clostridium botulinum bacteria or the toxin they produce. Improperly canned foods, fresh produce, and occasionally fish may carry the bacteria.
Bronchitis Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation of the main air passages to the lungs. This swelling narrows the airways, making it harder to breathe and causing other symptoms, such as a cough.
Cancer Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancerous cells are also called malignant cells.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition in which there is excessive pressure on the median nerve. This is the nerve in the wrist that allows feeling and movement to parts of the hand. Carpal tunnel syndrome can lead to numbness, tingling, weakness, or muscle damage in the hand and fingers.
Cat Scratch Disease Cat scratch disease / fever is an infection with Bartonella bacteria that is believed to be transmitted by cat scratches and bites.
Chickenpox Chickenpox is a viral infection in which a person develops extremely itchy blisters all over the body. It used to be one of the classic childhood diseases. However, it has become much less common since the introduction of the chickenpox vaccine.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera. The main symptoms are watery diarrhea and vomiting. This may result in dehydration and in severe cases grayish-bluish skin.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic fatigue syndrome refers to severe, continued tiredness that is not relieved by rest and is not directly caused by other medical conditions.
Colitis Colitis refers to an inflammation of the colon and is often used to describe an inflammation of the large intestine.
Conjunctivitis Pink eye is an inflammation or infection of the transparent membrane (conjunctiva) that lines your eyelid and covers the white part of your eyeball.
Croup Croup is breathing difficulty and a “barking” cough. Croup is due to swelling around the vocal cords. It is common in infants and children.
Cyst A cyst is a closed pocket or pouch of tissue. It can be filled with air, fluid, pus, or other material.
Dengue Fever Dengue fever is a painful, debilitating mosquito-borne disease caused by any one of four closely related dengue viruses. These viruses are related to the viruses that cause West Nile infection and yellow fever.
Diabetes describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both.
Diphtheria Diphtheria is a serious, sometimes fatal bacterial disease caused by Corynebacteria diphtheriae that begins with nose and throat symptoms.
Ebola Ebola is a disease that is transmitted by viruses. It is fatal in about 50 to 90 percent of cases. Almost 40 years ago in 1976, the disease was first discovered in Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of Congo. The disease occurs in waves, the largest outbreak registered is in West Africa since March of 2014 and still ongoing.
Embolism The obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign substance or a blood clot that travels through the bloodstream, lodging in a blood vessel, plugging the vessel.
Emphysema Emphysema gradually damages the air sacs in your lungs, making you progressively more short of breath. Emphysema is one of several diseases known collectively as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Encephalitis Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. Viral infections are the most common cause of the condition.
Endometriosis Endometriosis is a female health disorder that occurs when cells from the lining of the uterus grow in other areas of the body. This can lead to pain, irregular bleeding, and infertility.
Epilepsy Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which a person has repeated seizures (convulsions) over time. Seizures are episodes of disturbed brain activity that cause changes in attention or behavior.
Fever Fever is the temporary increase in the body’s temperature in response to some disease or illness.
Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia is a common syndrome in which a person has long-term, body-wide pain and tenderness in the joints, muscles, tendons, and other soft tissues. Fibromyalgia has also been linked to fatigue, sleep problems, headaches, depression, and anxiety.
Genetic Diseases Every person develops under the influence of a mix of genes inherited from his or her mother and father. These genes, or small parts of chromosomes, determine the architecture and activity of the entire body.
German Measles (Rubella) Rubella, also known as the German measles, is an infection in which there is a rash on the skin. Congenital rubella is when a pregnant woman with rubella passes it to the baby that is still in her womb.
Glaucoma Glaucoma is a condition that causes damage to your eye’s optic nerve and gets worse over time. It’s often associated with a buildup of pressure inside the eye. Glaucoma tends to be inherited and may not show up until later in life.
Heartburn (Dyspepsia) is a medical condition characterized by chronic or recurrent painin the upper abdomen, upper abdominal fullness and feeling full earlier than expected when eating. It can be accompanied by bloating, belching, nausea, or heartburn. Dyspepsia is a common problem and is frequently caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or gastritis.
Hepatitis Hepatitis is swelling and inflammation of the liver. The term is often used to refer to a viral infection of the liver.
Hookworm Hookworm is a parasitic nematode that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human.
Hypertension High blood pressure is a common condition in which the force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is a medical emergency that involves an abnormally diminished content of glucose in the blood. The term literally means “low blood sugar”.
Immunodeficiency is a state in which the immune system’s ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent.
Infection The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites that are not normally present within the body. An infection may cause no symptoms and be subclinical, or it may cause symptoms and be clinically apparent.
Influenza Influenza is a viral infection that attacks your respiratory system – your nose, throat and lungs. Influenza and its complications can be deadly.
Jaundice Jaundice is a yellow color of the skin, mucus membranes, or eyes. The yellow coloring comes from bilirubin, a byproduct of old red blood cells. Jaundice can be a symptom of other health problems.
Kidney Disease When the kidneys become damaged, waste products and fluid can build up in the body, causing swelling in your ankles, vomiting, weakness, poor sleep, and shortness of breath. If left untreated, diseased kidneysmay eventually stop functioning completely.
Legionnaires’ Disease Legionnaires’ disease, also called Legionellosis, is a serious infection caused by the Legionella pneumophila bacterium. This infection leads to inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia) and to other health problems.
Leprosy Leprosy is a disease that has been known since biblical times. It causes skin sores, nerve damage, and muscle weakness that gets worse over time.
Lupus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease that leads to long-term (chronic) inflammation.
Lyme Disease Lyme disease is a bacterial infection that is spread through the bite of one of several types of ticks.
Malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die.
Measles Measles is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by a virus. It spreads through the air through coughing and sneezing. Measles starts with a fever, runny nose, cough, red eyes, and sore throat, and is followed by a rash that spreads all over the body.
Meningitis Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding your brain and spinal cord.
Multiple Sclerosis Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease in which your immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers your nerves.
Mumps Mumps is a contagious disease that is caused by the mumps virus. Mumps typically starts with a few days of fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, and loss of appetite, and is followed by swelling of salivary glands.
Plague Plague is a serious bacterial infection that’s transmitted by fleas. Known as the Black Death during medieval times, today plague occurs in fewer than 5,000 people a year worldwide. It can be deadly if not treated promptly with antibiotics.
Pneumoconiosis Pneumoconiosis is an occupational lung disease and a restrictive lung disease caused by the inhalation of dust, often in mines.
Pneumonia Pneumonia is a common lung infection caused by bacteria, a virus or fungi. Pneumonia and its symptoms can vary from mild to severe. Many treatments for pneumonia are available.
Polio Poliomyelitis is a viral disease that can affect nerves and can lead to partial or full paralysis.
Rheumatic Fever Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that may develop after an infection with group A Streptococcus bacteria.
Ringworm Ringworm is common, especially among children. However, it may affect people of all ages. It is caused by a fungus, not a worm like the name suggests.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease brought on by a type of bacteria carried by ticks.
Rubella (German Measles) Rubella, also called German measles or three-day measles, is a contagious viral infection best known by its distinctive red rash.
Scarlet Fever Scarlet fever is a bacterial illness that develops in some people who have strep throat. Also known as scarlatina, scarlet fever features a bright red rash that covers most of the body.
Sepsis Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection. Sepsis occurs when chemicals released into the bloodstream to fight the infection trigger inflammatory responses throughout the body.
Smallpox Smallpox is a contagious, disfiguring and often deadly disease that has affected humans for thousands of years. Naturally occurring smallpox was eradicated worldwide by 1980 the result of an unprecedented global immunization campaign.
Tetanus Tetanus is a serious bacterial disease that affects your nervous system, leading to painful muscle contractions, particularly of your jaw and neck muscles.
Tinnitus Tinnitus is noise or ringing in the ears. A common problem, tinnitus affects about 1 in 5 people. Tinnitus isn’t a condition itself – it’s a symptom of an underlying condition.
Trichinosis Trichinellosis, also called trichinosis, is a disease that people can get by eating raw or undercooked meat from animals infected with the microscopic parasite Trichinella.
Tuberculosis Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit respiratory fluids through the air.
Typhoid Fever is an infectious disease caused by the bacteriaSalmonella typhi. It is also known as enteric fever, or commonly just typhoid.
Viral Infections Viruses are capsules with genetic material inside. They are very tiny, much smaller than bacteria. Viruses cause familiar infectious diseases such as thecommon cold, flu and warts. They also cause severe illnesses such asHIV/AIDS, smallpox and hemorrhagic fevers.
West Nile Fever West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. This flavivirus is found in temperate and tropical regions of the world.
Whooping Cough (Pertussis) is a highly contagious bacterial disease that causes uncontrollable, violent coughing. The coughing can make it hard to breathe. A deep “whooping” sound is often heard when the patient tries to take a breath.
Yellow Fever Yellow fever is a viral infection spread by a particular type of mosquito. The infection is most common in areas of Africa and South America, affecting travelers to and residents of those areas.